您的位置 首页 java

浅谈HashMap原理,并手写HashMap并实现部分区块链特征

写在前面

最近有很多的粉丝私信我,说自己在面试的时候,老是被人问 HashMap 的原理,但是在实际的工作中,也只是使用HashMap,从来就没有关注过它的原来,今天博主本人,根据自己的实际经验,浅谈一下HashMap的实现原理。并附上自己根据原理,手写的MHashMap,并且还带上了部分区块链的特征。

JDK7和JDK8中的HashMap

JDK7:数组和链式结构 JDK8:数组和链式结构, 红黑树 两者之间的区别就是,JDK8中加上了红黑树。 因为今天是一个HashMap的原理浅析,这里就不附带讲解红黑树,后面的博文,我会专门来讲解红黑树。

正文

现在我开始正式进入我对HashMap讲解中来。 HashMap的特征

存储结构:key,value键值对的形式

查询数据: 1,通过key进行mod(取模),获取到当前数组对应的 node , 2,根据node存放的hash和key对应的hash进行比较,是否一致,如果不一致,则同当前node的下一个node进行比对。 3,还是不一致,就继续从当前比较的Node取下一个节点进行比较。

存储数据: 1,对key进行mod计算 2,将数据存放到data[mod]中去 3,如果当前的data[mod]已经有值存在了,则将当前已经存在的对象oldNode,存放到新的Node的next中去

我们定义一个数组,并给给它一个默认的长度

  private  final  static  int defaultDataLength = 16;
  

再创建一个指定长度的数组

 private Node[] data = new Node[defaultDataLength];
  

这里的Node为我们自己定义的一个内部类对象

 @Getter
    @Setter
    static class Node {
        private int  HashCode ;
        private Object key;
        private Object value;
        private Node next;

        public static Node instance(int hashCode, Object key, Object value, Node next) {
            Node node = new Node();
            node.setHashCode(hashCode);
            node.setKey(key);
            node.setValue(value);
            node.setNext(next);
            return node;
        }
    }
  

它由四个元素组成,当前传入key的hash值,当前的key,当前的value及下一个对象。

完整代码

 package com.moonl.jvm.utils;

import lombok.Getter;
import lombok.Setter;

import  java .io.Serializable;
import java.util.AbstractMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;

public class MHashMap<K, V> {

    private final static int defaultDataLength = 16;

    private Node[] data = new Node[defaultDataLength];

    private Integer previous hashCode  = 0;


    public V put(K key, V value) {
        int hash = hash(key);
        int mod = hashMod(key);
        if (null == data[mod]) {
            data[mod] = Node.instance(hash, key, value, null);
            return value;
        }
        //旧的node缓存
        Node oldNode = data[mod];
        //新的key,存放到指定位置的数组中去,并将原有节点存放到next中
        data[mod] = Node.instance(hash, key, value, oldNode);
        return value;
    }

    public V get(K key) {
        Node node = data[hashMod(key)];
        // root  node hashCode
        this.previousHashCode = hash((K) ("root_" + hashMod(key)));
        return findKey(node, key);
    }


    public V findKey(Node node, K key) {

        if (null == key) {
            return null;
        }
        if (node == null) {
            return null;
        }
         String  chain = "The Previous HashCode:" + previousHashCode + " Now HashCode :" + node.getHashCode();
        //传入的key对应的hash
        int hash = hash(key);
        //当前节点存储的hashCode
        int hashCode = node.getHashCode();
        if (hash == hashCode) {
            System.out.println("input key is :" + key + " and hash:" + hashCode);
            System.out.println("query key is :" + node.getKey() + " and hash:" + node.getHashCode());
            return (V) node.getValue();
        }
        //当前找到的节点的下一个节点
        Node nextNode = node.getNext();
        //如果要从下一个节点开始查询,则当前节点变更为上一个节点
        previousHashCode = node.getHashCode();
        chain = chain + " Next Node HashCode :" + nextNode.getHashCode();
        System.out.println(chain);
        return findKey(nextNode, key);
    }

    public int hash(K key) {
        int hashCode = 0;
        return key == null ? 0 : key.hashCode();
    }

    public int hashMod(K key) {
        return Math.abs(key.hashCode() % 16);
    }

    @Getter
    @Setter
    static class Node {
        private int hashCode;
        private Object key;
        private Object value;
        private Node next;

        public static Node instance(int hashCode, Object key, Object value, Node next) {
            Node node = new Node();
            node.setHashCode(hashCode);
            node.setKey(key);
            node.setValue(value);
            node.setNext(next);
            return node;
        }
    }


}
  

在代码中,我对根节点,也就是数组节点的记录方式是”root_”+mod值共同生成的hash // 现在我们开始使用封装数据(put),并逐步(get)数据

 @Test
    public  void  testHashMap() {
//        Map<String, Object> maps = new HashMap<String, Object>();
        MHashMap<String, Object> zhaoMaps = new MHashMap<String, Object>();
        for (int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) {
            zhaoMaps.put("赵"+i+"姐","赵颖"+i+"姐 is 250");
        }
        MHashMap<String, Object> yingMaps = new MHashMap<String, Object>();
        for (int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) {
            yingMaps.put("大颖"+i+"姐","大颖"+i+"姐 is 250");
        }
        System.out.println(zhaoMaps.get("赵162姐"));
        System.out.println(yingMaps.get("大颖456姐"));
    }
  

输出的结果是

 The Previous HashCode:-925311973 Now HashCode :-914498616 Next Node HashCode :-914499608
The Previous HashCode:-914498616 Now HashCode :-914499608 Next Node HashCode :-914500600
The Previous HashCode:-914499608 Now HashCode :-914500600 Next Node HashCode :-914501592
The Previous HashCode:-914500600 Now HashCode :-914501592 Next Node HashCode :-914502584
The Previous HashCode:-914501592 Now HashCode :-914502584 Next Node HashCode :-914503576
The Previous HashCode:-914502584 Now HashCode :-914503576 Next Node HashCode :-914529368
The Previous HashCode:-914503576 Now HashCode :-914529368 Next Node HashCode :-914530360
The Previous HashCode:-914529368 Now HashCode :-914530360 Next Node HashCode :-914531352
The Previous HashCode:-914530360 Now HashCode :-914531352 Next Node HashCode :-914532344
The Previous HashCode:-914531352 Now HashCode :-914532344 Next Node HashCode :-914533336
The Previous HashCode:-914532344 Now HashCode :-914533336 Next Node HashCode :-914560120
The Previous HashCode:-914533336 Now HashCode :-914560120 Next Node HashCode :-914561112
The Previous HashCode:-914560120 Now HashCode :-914561112 Next Node HashCode :-914562104
The Previous HashCode:-914561112 Now HashCode :-914562104 Next Node HashCode :-914563096
The Previous HashCode:-914562104 Now HashCode :-914563096 Next Node HashCode :-914584424
The Previous HashCode:-914563096 Now HashCode :-914584424 Next Node HashCode :-914590872
The Previous HashCode:-914584424 Now HashCode :-914590872 Next Node HashCode :-914591864
The Previous HashCode:-914590872 Now HashCode :-914591864 Next Node HashCode :-914592856
The Previous HashCode:-914591864 Now HashCode :-914592856 Next Node HashCode :-914614184
The Previous HashCode:-914592856 Now HashCode :-914614184 Next Node HashCode :-914615176
The Previous HashCode:-914614184 Now HashCode :-914615176 Next Node HashCode :-914621624
The Previous HashCode:-914615176 Now HashCode :-914621624 Next Node HashCode :-914622616
The Previous HashCode:-914621624 Now HashCode :-914622616 Next Node HashCode :-914643944
The Previous HashCode:-914622616 Now HashCode :-914643944 Next Node HashCode :-914644936
The Previous HashCode:-914643944 Now HashCode :-914644936 Next Node HashCode :-914645928
The Previous HashCode:-914644936 Now HashCode :-914645928 Next Node HashCode :-914652376
The Previous HashCode:-914645928 Now HashCode :-914652376 Next Node HashCode :-914673704
The Previous HashCode:-914652376 Now HashCode :-914673704 Next Node HashCode :-914674696
The Previous HashCode:-914673704 Now HashCode :-914674696 Next Node HashCode :-914675688
The Previous HashCode:-914674696 Now HashCode :-914675688 Next Node HashCode :-914676680
The Previous HashCode:-914675688 Now HashCode :-914676680 Next Node HashCode :-914703464
The Previous HashCode:-914676680 Now HashCode :-914703464 Next Node HashCode :-914704456
The Previous HashCode:-914703464 Now HashCode :-914704456 Next Node HashCode :-914705448
The Previous HashCode:-914704456 Now HashCode :-914705448 Next Node HashCode :-914706440
The Previous HashCode:-914705448 Now HashCode :-914706440 Next Node HashCode :-914707432
The Previous HashCode:-914706440 Now HashCode :-914707432 Next Node HashCode :-914733224
The Previous HashCode:-914707432 Now HashCode :-914733224 Next Node HashCode :-914734216
The Previous HashCode:-914733224 Now HashCode :-914734216 Next Node HashCode :-914735208
The Previous HashCode:-914734216 Now HashCode :-914735208 Next Node HashCode :-914736200
input key is :赵162姐 and hash:-914736200
query key is :赵162姐 and hash:-914736200
赵颖162姐 is 250
The Previous HashCode:-925311975 Now HashCode :-2010266582 Next Node HashCode :-2010267574
The Previous HashCode:-2010266582 Now HashCode :-2010267574 Next Node HashCode :-2010268566
The Previous HashCode:-2010267574 Now HashCode :-2010268566 Next Node HashCode :-2010269558
The Previous HashCode:-2010268566 Now HashCode :-2010269558 Next Node HashCode :-2010270550
The Previous HashCode:-2010269558 Now HashCode :-2010270550 Next Node HashCode :-2010271542
The Previous HashCode:-2010270550 Now HashCode :-2010271542 Next Node HashCode :-2010296342
The Previous HashCode:-2010271542 Now HashCode :-2010296342 Next Node HashCode :-2010297334
The Previous HashCode:-2010296342 Now HashCode :-2010297334 Next Node HashCode :-2010298326
The Previous HashCode:-2010297334 Now HashCode :-2010298326 Next Node HashCode :-2010299318
The Previous HashCode:-2010298326 Now HashCode :-2010299318 Next Node HashCode :-2010300310
The Previous HashCode:-2010299318 Now HashCode :-2010300310 Next Node HashCode :-2010301302
The Previous HashCode:-2010300310 Now HashCode :-2010301302 Next Node HashCode :-2010302294
The Previous HashCode:-2010301302 Now HashCode :-2010302294 Next Node HashCode :-2010326102
The Previous HashCode:-2010302294 Now HashCode :-2010326102 Next Node HashCode :-2010327094
The Previous HashCode:-2010326102 Now HashCode :-2010327094 Next Node HashCode :-2010328086
The Previous HashCode:-2010327094 Now HashCode :-2010328086 Next Node HashCode :-2010329078
The Previous HashCode:-2010328086 Now HashCode :-2010329078 Next Node HashCode :-2010330070
The Previous HashCode:-2010329078 Now HashCode :-2010330070 Next Node HashCode :-2010331062
The Previous HashCode:-2010330070 Now HashCode :-2010331062 Next Node HashCode :-2010332054
The Previous HashCode:-2010331062 Now HashCode :-2010332054 Next Node HashCode :-2010333046
The Previous HashCode:-2010332054 Now HashCode :-2010333046 Next Node HashCode :-2010355862
The Previous HashCode:-2010333046 Now HashCode :-2010355862 Next Node HashCode :-2010356854
The Previous HashCode:-2010355862 Now HashCode :-2010356854 Next Node HashCode :-2010357846
The Previous HashCode:-2010356854 Now HashCode :-2010357846 Next Node HashCode :-2010358838
The Previous HashCode:-2010357846 Now HashCode :-2010358838 Next Node HashCode :-2010359830
The Previous HashCode:-2010358838 Now HashCode :-2010359830 Next Node HashCode :-2010360822
The Previous HashCode:-2010359830 Now HashCode :-2010360822 Next Node HashCode :-2010361814
The Previous HashCode:-2010360822 Now HashCode :-2010361814 Next Node HashCode :-2010362806
The Previous HashCode:-2010361814 Now HashCode :-2010362806 Next Node HashCode :-2010363798
The Previous HashCode:-2010362806 Now HashCode :-2010363798 Next Node HashCode :-2010385622
The Previous HashCode:-2010363798 Now HashCode :-2010385622 Next Node HashCode :-2010386614
The Previous HashCode:-2010385622 Now HashCode :-2010386614 Next Node HashCode :-2010387606
The Previous HashCode:-2010386614 Now HashCode :-2010387606 Next Node HashCode :-2010388598
The Previous HashCode:-2010387606 Now HashCode :-2010388598 Next Node HashCode :-2010389590
The Previous HashCode:-2010388598 Now HashCode :-2010389590 Next Node HashCode :-2010390582
The Previous HashCode:-2010389590 Now HashCode :-2010390582 Next Node HashCode :-2010391574
The Previous HashCode:-2010390582 Now HashCode :-2010391574 Next Node HashCode :-2010392566
The Previous HashCode:-2010391574 Now HashCode :-2010392566 Next Node HashCode :-2010393558
The Previous HashCode:-2010392566 Now HashCode :-2010393558 Next Node HashCode :-2010394550
The Previous HashCode:-2010393558 Now HashCode :-2010394550 Next Node HashCode :-2010416374
The Previous HashCode:-2010394550 Now HashCode :-2010416374 Next Node HashCode :-2010417366
The Previous HashCode:-2010416374 Now HashCode :-2010417366 Next Node HashCode :-2010418358
The Previous HashCode:-2010417366 Now HashCode :-2010418358 Next Node HashCode :-2010419350
input key is :大颖456姐 and hash:-2010419350
query key is :大颖456姐 and hash:-2010419350
大颖456姐 is 250

  

通过输出的日志,我们可以看见,node节点的存储结构是按照区块链的特性,记录上个节点的信息和下一个节点的信息关系来存储数据。

当然,这里我们对Node对象再写深入一些,加上一些共识的算法,加密解密验签的算法,并做节点的共享,那么一个简单的区块链就完成了。

本文,主要是为了解答粉丝在面试过程中,面试官不停问HashMap原理而编写的,区块链就不做更多的阐述了。

文章来源:智云一二三科技

文章标题:浅谈HashMap原理,并手写HashMap并实现部分区块链特征

文章地址:https://www.zhihuclub.com/192663.shtml

关于作者: 智云科技

热门文章

发表回复

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。

网站地图